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Carbon ( C )

Material Information

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General Description:  

Carbon has been known since prehistoric times.

Carbon occurs naturally in two allotropic forms, namely graphite and diamond; the discovery in 1985 of fullerenes has increased the number of allotropic forms of this element. Its abundance in the Earth's crust is 480 ppm. The study of carbon and its organic compounds is the basis of organic chemistry.

The applications for carbon are many and include its use as an alloying element with iron in the manufacture of steel, its use as brushes in electrical generators and motors, the use of colloidal graphite or carbon to coat surfaces (e.g. glass), in electrical assemblies to absorb microwaves and inhibit photoelectrons and secondary electrons, and the use of high purity carbon (graphite) in nuclear reactors to moderate neutrons.

Diamond has unique properties, being one of the hardest materials known and with excellent corrosion resistance and thermal transfer. Industrial diamond is used in rock drilling equipment and abrasive materials. CVD diamond has been the subject of extensive research and development over the past several years and applications for this material are only just being realised.

Carbon is a fundamental part of all life, it being a prime constituent of DNA. On average, the human body contains approximately 16kg of carbon in one form or another.

   

Atomic Properties

Atomic number 6
Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.077
Atomic weight ( amu ) 12.011
Crystal structure Hexagonal/Diamond
Electronic structure He 2s2 2p2
Ionisation potential No. eV
1 11.26
2 24.38
3 47.9
4 64.5
5 392
6 490
Natural isotope distribution Mass No. %
12 98.89
13 1.11
Photo-electric work function ( eV ) 4.8
Thermal neutron absorption cross-section ( Barns ) 0.0034
Valences shown 2, 3, 4

Electrical Properties

Electrical resistivity @0C ( µOhmcm ) 1375
Thermal emf against Pt (cold 0C - hot 100C) ( mV ) +0.70

Mechanical Properties

Material condition Graphite Diamond
Bulk modulus ( GPa ) 33 542
Hardness - Mohs 0.5-1.0 10
Tensile modulus ( GPa ) 4.8

Physical Properties

Boiling point ( C ) 5000
Density @20C ( g cm-3 ) 2.25
Melting point ( C ) 3650

Thermal Properties

Coefficient of thermal expansion @0-100C ( x10-6 K-1 ) 0.6-4.3
Specific heat @25C ( J K-1 kg-1 ) 712
Thermal conductivity @0-100C ( W m-1 K-1 ) 80-240

Properties for Carbon Fibre

Property Value
Material XAS,HTA,T300 34-700, T650/35 UMS2526 HM HS40 P25 P100 F180 F500
Coefficient of thermal expansion - Longitudinal x10-6 K-1 -0.1to-0.5 -0.6 -0.7 -1.3 -0.5 - -1.5
Coefficient of thermal expansion - Transverse x10-6 K-1 +26 - +37 +25
Density g cm-3 1.76-1.8 1.77-1.8 1.78 1.86 1.85 1.87 2.15 - 2.1
Extension to break % 1.5-1.7 1.7-1.9 1.2 0.8 0.9 1.0 0.3 - 2.1
Filament diameter µm 7 7 4.8 8 5 11 10 - 9
Precursor PAN PAN PAN PAN PAN Pitch Pitch Pitch Pitch
Tensile modulus GPa 230-40 230-40 380 350-70 450 140-60 720 180 500
Tensile strength GPa 3.6-4 4.5 4.9 2.5-2.7 4.4 1.4 2.2 2.0 3.0
Thermal Conductivity W m-1 K-1 17-24 14 46 105 52 22 520
Volume Resistivity µOhmcm 1400-1600 1500 1000 900 1000 1300 250 1100 400

Properties for Carbon Foil

Property Value
Material Pyrolytic Flexible Rigid Glassy
Coefficient of thermal expansion x10-6 K-1 0.9-14 1-25 7 2.6
Density g cm-3 2.2 0.9-1.3 1.8 1.4
Flexural strength MPa 80 90 260
Resistivity µOhmcm 0.5-250 1000-50000 1200 4000-5500
Thermal Conductivity W m-1 K-1 1.7-300 4-160 150 6.3

Buy Carbon on-line

We stock and supply the following standard forms:
Chopped Fibre Fabric Fibre Foil Lump Microleaf Powder Rod Sputtering Target
Chopped Fibre Fabric Fibre Foil Lump Microleaf Powder Rod Sputtering Target
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Choose a form to search our on-line catalogue  

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