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Calcium ( Ca )

Material Information

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General Description:  

Discovered in 1808 by Sir Humphrey Davy in London.

Calcium is a silvery white metal which is obtained by the electrolysis of molten calcium chloride. It is one of the most abundant metal elements on Earth (41000 ppm), but it never occurs as the pure element, the main deposits being limestone (CaCO3), Dolomite (CaCO3.MgCO3) and Gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O). Calcium compounds have many applications; for example, calcium chloride is used extensively to dry gases as it is capable of absorbing moisture from the atmosphere. Calcium oxide (lime), produced by heating limestone, has many applications including the chemical, agricultural, construction and water industries.

Calcium is an essential constituent of the human body which contains, on average, 1kg. of the element.

   

Atomic Properties

Atomic number 20
Atomic radius - Goldschmidt ( nm ) 0.197
Atomic weight ( amu ) 40.08
Crystal structure Face centred cubic
Electronic structure Ar 4s2
Ionisation potential No. eV
1 6.11
2 11.87
3 50.9
4 67.1
5 84.4
6 109
Natural isotope distribution Mass No. %
40 96.941
42 0.647
43 0.135
44 2.086
46 0.004
48 0.187
Photo-electric work function ( eV ) 2.87
Thermal neutron absorption cross-section ( Barns ) 0.44
Valences shown 2

Electrical Properties

Electrical resistivity @20C ( µOhmcm ) 3.7
Temperature coefficient @0-100C ( K-1 ) 0.00457
Thermal emf against Pt (cold 0C - hot 100C) ( mV ) -0.51

Mechanical Properties

Material condition Soft Hard Polycrystalline
Bulk modulus ( GPa )     17.2
Hardness - Vickers 17
Poisson's ratio     0.31
Tensile modulus ( GPa )     19.6
Tensile strength ( MPa ) 55 115
Yield strength ( MPa ) 14 84.5

Physical Properties

Boiling point ( C ) 1484
Density @20C ( g cm-3 ) 1.55
Melting point ( C ) 839

Thermal Properties

Coefficient of thermal expansion @0-100C ( x10-6 K-1 ) 22.0
Latent heat of evaporation ( J g-1 ) 3760
Latent heat of fusion ( J g-1 ) 209
Specific heat @25C ( J K-1 kg-1 ) 653
Thermal conductivity @0-100C ( W m-1 K-1 ) 125

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